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Leonard We welcome entrepreneurs and creative minds from all walks of life! Leonardo had many friends who are now renowned either in their fields or for their historical significance.
They included the mathematician Luca Pacioli,  with whom he collaborated on the book Divina proportione in the s. Leonardo appears to have had no close relationships with women except for his friendship with Cecilia Gallerani and the two Este sisters, Beatrice and Isabella.
Beyond friendship, Leonardo kept his private life secret. His sexuality has been the subject of satire, analysis, and speculation.
This trend began in the midth century and was revived in the 19th and 20th centuries, most notably by Sigmund Freud in his Leonardo da Vinci, A Memory of His Childhood.
Melzi, writing to inform Leonardo's brothers of his death, described Leonardo's feelings for his pupils as both loving and passionate.
It has been claimed since the 16th century that these relationships were of a sexual or erotic nature. Court records of , when he was aged twenty-four, show that Leonardo and three other young men were charged with sodomy in an incident involving a well-known male prostitute.
The charges were dismissed for lack of evidence, and there is speculation that since one of the accused, Lionardo de Tornabuoni, was related to Lorenzo de' Medici, the family exerted its influence to secure the dismissal.
Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his fame rested on his achievements as a painter.
A handful of works that are either authenticated or attributed to him have been regarded as among the great masterpieces. These paintings are famous for a variety of qualities that have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics.
By the s Leonardo had already been described as a "Divine" painter. Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are his innovative techniques for laying on the paint; his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology; his interest in physiognomy and the way humans register emotion in expression and gesture; his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition; and his use of subtle gradation of tone.
All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa , the Last Supper , and the Virgin of the Rocks.
Leonardo first gained attention for his work on the Baptism of Christ , painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. Two other paintings appear to date from his time at Verrocchio's workshop, both of which are Annunciations.
It is a " predella " to go at the base of a larger composition, a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated.
Although previously attributed to Ghirlandaio, the larger work is now generally attributed to Leonardo. In the smaller painting, Mary averts her eyes and folds her hands in a gesture that symbolised submission to God's will.
Mary is not submissive, however, in the larger piece. The girl, interrupted in her reading by this unexpected messenger, puts a finger in her bible to mark the place and raises her hand in a formal gesture of greeting or surprise.
In this painting, the young Leonardo presents the humanist face of the Virgin Mary, recognising humanity's role in God's incarnation.
In the s, Leonardo received two very important commissions and commenced another work that was of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition.
Two of the three were never finished, and the third took so long that it was subject to lengthy negotiations over completion and payment.
One of these paintings was Saint Jerome in the Wilderness , which Bortolon associates with a difficult period of Leonardo's life, as evidenced in his diary: "I thought I was learning to live; I was only learning to die.
His kneeling form takes on a trapezoid shape, with one arm stretched to the outer edge of the painting and his gaze looking in the opposite direction.
Wasserman points out the link between this painting and Leonardo's anatomical studies. The other remarkable feature is the sketchy landscape of craggy rocks against which the figure is silhouetted.
The daring display of figure composition, the landscape elements and personal drama also appear in the great unfinished masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi , a commission from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto.
It is a complex composition, of about x centimetres. Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory studies, including a detailed one in linear perspective of the ruined classical architecture that forms part of the background.
In Leonardo went to Milan at the behest of Lorenzo de' Medici in order to win favour with Ludovico il Moro, and the painting was abandoned.
The third important work of this period is the Virgin of the Rocks , commissioned in Milan for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception.
The painting, to be done with the assistance of the de Predis brothers , was to fill a large complex altarpiece. The painting demonstrates an eerie beauty as the graceful figures kneel in adoration around the infant Christ in a wild landscape of tumbling rock and whirling water.
The painting was eventually finished; in fact, two versions of the painting were finished: one remained at the chapel of the Confraternity, while Leonardo took the other to France.
The Brothers did not get their painting, however, nor the de Predis their payment, until the next century. Leonardo's most remarkable portrait of this period is the Lady with an Ermine , presumed to be Cecilia Gallerani c.
The ermine plainly carries symbolic meaning, relating either to the sitter, or to Ludovico who belonged to the prestigious Order of the Ermine.
It represents the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death, and shows the moment when Jesus has just said "one of you will betray me", and the consternation that this statement caused.
The writer Matteo Bandello observed Leonardo at work and wrote that some days he would paint from dawn till dusk without stopping to eat and then not paint for three or four days at a time.
Vasari describes how Leonardo, troubled over his ability to adequately depict the faces of Christ and the traitor Judas , told the Duke that he might be obliged to use the prior as his model.
When finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece of design and characterization,  but it deteriorated rapidly, so that within a hundred years it was described by one viewer as "completely ruined.
Leonardo devised a dynamic composition depicting four men riding raging war horses engaged in a battle for possession of a standard, at the Battle of Anghiari in Michelangelo was assigned the opposite wall to depict the Battle of Cascina.
Leonardo's painting deteriorated rapidly and is now known from a copy by Rubens. Among the works created by Leonardo in the 16th century is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa or La Gioconda , the laughing one.
In the present era, it is arguably the most famous painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman's face, its mysterious quality perhaps due to the subtly shadowed corners of the mouth and eyes such that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined.
The shadowy quality for which the work is renowned came to be called " sfumato ," or Leonardo's smoke. Vasari, who is generally thought to have known the painting only by repute, said that "the smile was so pleasing that it seemed divine rather than human; and those who saw it were amazed to find that it was as alive as the original.
Other characteristics of the painting are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details; the dramatic landscape background, in which the world seems to be in a state of flux; the subdued colouring; and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils laid on much like tempera , and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable.
In the painting Virgin and Child with St. Anne , the composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape, which Wasserman describes as "breathtakingly beautiful"  and harkens back to the St Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle.
What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely set figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St Anne.
She leans forward to restrain the Christ Child as he plays roughly with a lamb, the sign of his own impending sacrifice.
The trends in composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese. Leonardo was a prolific draughtsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention.
As well as the journals there exist many studies for paintings, some of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi , The Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper.
It is the first [documented] time where a landscape was drawn just for the sake of it. Anne and St. John the Baptist in the National Gallery, London.
It is thought that Leonardo never made a painting from it, the closest similarity being to The Virgin and Child with St.
Anne in the Louvre. Other drawings of interest include numerous studies generally referred to as "caricatures" because, although exaggerated, they appear to be based upon observation of live models.
Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would follow them around all day observing them. Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated.
Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. A marked development in Leonardo's ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works.
Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in showing the body of Bernardo Baroncelli , hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de' Medici, in the Pazzi conspiracy.
Like the two contemporary architects Donato Bramante who designed the Belvedere Courtyard and Antonio da Sangallo the Elder , Leonardo experimented with designs for centrally planned churches, a number of which appear in his journals, as both plans and views, although none was ever realised.
Renaissance humanism recognised no mutually exclusive polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo's studies in science and engineering are sometimes considered as impressive and innovative as his artistic work.
They were made and maintained daily throughout Leonardo's life and travels, as he made continual observations of the world around him.
There are compositions for paintings, studies of details and drapery, studies of faces and emotions, of animals, babies, dissections, plant studies, rock formations, whirlpools, war machines, flying machines and architecture.
These notebooks—originally loose papers of different types and sizes, were largely entrusted to Leonardo's pupil and heir Francesco Melzi after the master's death.
Having many more such works in his possession, Orazio gifted the volumes to Magenta. News spread of these lost works of Leonardo's, and Orazio retrieved seven of the 13 manuscripts, which he then gave to Pompeo Leoni for publication in two volumes; one of these was the Codex Atlanticus.
The other six works had been distributed to a few others. Most of Leonardo's writings are in mirror-image cursive.
Leonardo's approach to science was observational: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail and did not emphasise experiments or theoretical explanation.
Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist, although he did teach himself Latin.
In the s he studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Pacioli's book Divina proportione , published in The content of his journals suggest that he was planning a series of treatises on a variety of subjects.
A coherent treatise on anatomy is said to have been observed during a visit by Cardinal Louis d'Aragon's secretary in While Leonardo's experimentation followed scientific methods, a recent and exhaustive analysis of Leonardo as a scientist by Fritjof Capra argues that Leonardo was a fundamentally different kind of scientist from Galileo , Newton and other scientists who followed him in that, as a " Renaissance Man ", his theorising and hypothesising integrated the arts and particularly painting.
Leonardo started his study in the anatomy of the human body under the apprenticeship of Verrocchio, who demanded that his students develop a deep knowledge of the subject.
As a successful artist, Leonardo was given permission to dissect human corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome.
From to he collaborated in his studies with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre. Leonardo made over detailed drawings and wrote about 13, words towards a treatise on anatomy.
Leonardo's anatomical drawings include many studies of the human skeleton and its parts, and of muscles and sinews. He studied the mechanical functions of the skeleton and the muscular forces that are applied to it in a manner that prefigured the modern science of biomechanics.
Leonardo also closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human emotion on the physiology, studying in particular the effects of rage.
He drew many figures who had significant facial deformities or signs of illness. He also made a number of studies of horses.
Leonardo's dissections and documentation of muscles, nerves, and vessels helped to describe the physiology and mechanics of movement.
He attempted to identify the source of 'emotions' and their expression. He found it difficult to incorporate the prevailing system and theories of bodily humours , but eventually he abandoned these physiological explanations of bodily functions.
He made the observations that humours were not located in cerebral spaces or ventricles. He documented that the humours were not contained in the heart or the liver, and that it was the heart that defined the circulatory system.
He was the first to define atherosclerosis and liver cirrhosis. He created models of the cerebral ventricles with the use of melted wax and constructed a glass aorta to observe the circulation of blood through the aortic valve by using water and grass seed to watch flow patterns.
Vesalius published his work on anatomy and physiology in De humani corporis fabrica in During his lifetime, Leonardo was also valued as an engineer.
With the same rational and analytical approach that moved him to represent the human body and to investigate anatomy, Leonardo studied and designed many machines and devices.
Those studies and projects collected in his codices fill more than 5, pages. When he fled from Milan to Venice in , he found employment as an engineer and devised a system of moveable barricades to protect the city from attack.
They include musical instruments , a mechanical knight , hydraulic pumps, reversible crank mechanisms, finned mortar shells, and a steam cannon.
Leonardo was fascinated by the phenomenon of flight for much of his life, producing many studies, including Codex on the Flight of Birds c.
Research performed by Marc van den Broek revealed older prototypes for more than inventions that are ascribed to Leonardo. Similarities between Leonardo's illustrations and drawings from the Middle Ages and from Ancient Greece and Rome, the Chinese and Persian Empires, and Egypt suggest that a large portion of Leonardo's inventions had been conceived before his lifetime.
Leonardo's innovation was to combine different functions from existing drafts and set them into scenes that illustrated their utility.
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